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Pivot Tip 7 - Tips on formatting a pivot table

David Carter's series of Five Minute Tips aims to develop your skill at using Excel pivot tables. To test these formating tips for yourself, try them out on your copy of the pivot_practice.xlsdatabase.

The beauty of Excel is that you can format a spreadsheet any way you want. It's not quite so easy in pivot tables, and occasionally you can modify a pivot table only to lose the formatting when you recalculate via the Refresh option. Microsoft has added so many options over the years that it gets confusing. These tips should clarify matters.

Use the black down arrow to highlight columns and rows
At the top of the first column in your pivot table is a grey Field button giving the name of the field in the Row area. Usually it will be in about cell A4; in our example it's called Product or Customer.

If you wave your mouse pointer above this grey field button a thick black down arrow should appear. Left click and it highlights the whole column for formatting.

Similarly, if you wave the down arrow over the other grey field buttons, it will highlight column headings etc too.

Enable Selection
This black arrow automatically highlights an area for you to format. Sometimes, however, the Enable Selection feature gets turned off and the arrow disappears.

To see how it works, right click on the pivot table for menu. Choose Select. At the bottom is the Enable Selection button.

Click on Enable Selection. The down arrow will now no longer appear over the field button.

Now go back and choose Select'Enable Selection. The down arrow re-appears.

How to Activate the other Select options
When you go into the Select menu, you see that the top three options are greyed out. To activate them, click onto Entire Table.

This highlights the entire pivot table. Now go back into Select once more: the three options are now activated. They allow you to highlight part or the whole of the pivot table.

Format a column of numbers
The selection down arrow doesn't work with columns of numbers.

You can manually highlight them with a mouse, then apply formating. However, you might find it quicker to right click on any number in the column, then from the menu select Field Settings'Number.

The formatting you now choose will be applied to all the figures in the column.

Setting column widths
You cannot define the width of a column in a pivot table (if you use Format'Columns'Width the columns will re-set themselves as soon as you Refresh).

Excel estimates the width of the columns from the data or the column heading. So sometimes you have to be a bit inventive to make sure that your columns widths will stay that way even after you refresh.

Making a column narrower
You can type in a new column heading over the existing one. 
For example, one of the column headings we created in the last article was 'Sum of Margin Percent', which was far too wide.

Note, however, that if you just remove "Sum of" and change the column heading to 'Margin Percent', Excel will send an error message that 'Pivot table Name already exists' because this is the name of a data field.

Personally, I usually remove 'Sum of' to make a column narrower, but hit the space bar once as well so that the heading is not the same as the field name.

Making columns the same width
One irritating result of Refreshing the data can be that columns all now have different widths.

Sometimes you can control the width of all the number columns by modifying the column heading in the first column.

For example, if the column headings are Apr, May, Jun, Jul etc, go into the first column heading and change Apr to Apr-2005.

Now refresh the data. All the columns become wider, not just the April one.

Format Report
Finally, of course, you can let Excel do all your formatting for you.

Right click on the pivot table to call up the menu, the second option is Format Report. This offers you numerous pre-set formats. Choose any one to reformat the entire pivot table.

Related material in ExcelZone
For more than four years, David Carter and AccountingWEB members have built up a massive stockpile of material on Excel and pivot tables. To delve more deeply into the subject, see:

  • David Carter's Five Minute Pivot Table Tips - index
  • Want to learn about Excel pivot tables? Start here
  • The Excel Compendium - Pivot Tables
  • 100 Best Time-Saving Ways to Use Microsoft Office by Simon Hurst

  • http://www.accountingweb.co.uk/topic/technology/pivot-tip-7-tips-formatting-pivot-table

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    Premiums paid to secure aluminum are poised to exceed $500 a metric ton as soon as the coming quarter on stronger demand and limited supplies, according to United Co. Rusal (486), implying a jump of at least 20 percent.


    At least 75 percent of stockpiles in London Metal Exchange warehouses are tied into financing transactions and unavailable for immediate withdrawal, Deputy Chief Executive Officer Oleg Mukhamedshin said today in a telephone interview from Moscow, where the company is based. The “overall” global surcharge, added to the price on the LME, will be “well above” $500 a ton in the third quarter, he said.


    Buyers in Japan, Europe and the U.S. are paying record premiums for supplies of the lightweight metal. Stockpiles tracked by the LME fell in 19 of 20 sessions as of today to the lowest since May 2013. Aluminum for delivery in three months rose 2.5 percent this year to $1,846 a ton on the LME. A $500 premium would make up about 21 percent of total buying costs.


    “There is quite a deficit in the spot market,” Mukhamedshin said. Surging premiums “should be a concern for the consumers who need to hedge.”


    Buyers in Japan, Asia’s largest importer, agreed to pay a record premium for this quarter at $400 a ton. Spot premiums in Europe gained 47 percent this year to $412.50 a ton, including the European Union import duty, while the U.S. surcharge jumped 61 percent to 18.9 cents a pound ($417 a ton), according to Metal Bulletin data.


    ‘Strong Demand’


    Aluminum usage outside China will exceed production by 1.3 million to 1.4 million tons this year on “quite strong demand,” Mukhamedshin said. Producers outside the Asian nation reduced output by about 3 million tons since 2012 and should cut a further 1.6 million tons this year, he said.


    The market in China, the biggest producer and consumer of the metal, should be balanced as local output falls further, according to Rusal. The nation’s producers are losing money at current prices and output is set to slow as banks cut credit to loss-making companies, Mukhamedshin said.


    Financing transactions, involving a simultaneous purchase of nearby metal and forward sale, are intended to capitalize on a market in contango, when prices rise for later deliveries. Changes in borrowing costs and storage fees affect the accords’ profitability. Aluminum for immediate delivery on the LME settled today at a $22-a-ton discount to the three-month contract, the narrowest gap since December 2012, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. That compares with $45 on Jan. 2.


    Off-Warrant


    “The contango is OK and interest rates are still low, so financial transactions are still profitable and the stock which goes off-warrant is still not available,” Mukhamedshin said, referring to supplies held outside the LME’s network. “This is exactly why the premiums are going up, and we expect more record-high premiums in the third quarter, well above $500 per ton.”

    Posted by shonini

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    By Andy Home

    (Reuters) - Another quarter and another record premium level for Japanese aluminium buyers.


    The premium over the London Metal Exchange cash price for third-quarter shipments to Asia's largest importer seems to be settling around the $400 per tonne level, up from $365-370 in the current quarter.


    A year ago the premium PREM-ALUM-JP was just $250 and until the third quarter of 2012, it had never been higher than $130.


    Japanese buyers, however, have little choice but to take the premium pain.


    Although still viewed as a benchmark for the whole of Asia, the Japanese quarterly premium no longer has anything to do with regional supply-demand nuances. It is now just one manifestation of a global premium structure.


    If Japanese buyers baulk, producers can simply point to premiums in North America and Europe with the implicit threat of diverting shipments to those markets.




    THE UNSTOPPABLE PREMIUM MACHINE


    That, certainly, is the stark warning from Oleg Mukhamedshin, Deputy Chief Executive of Russian aluminium giant Rusal, speaking to reporters earlier this week.


    "We think the premium can easily reach a new record high well above $500," he said, adding for extra emphasis: "In the third quarter we can see new records, even $600 would not be out of the question."


    What once would have seemed a flight of producer fantasy doesn't seem quite so far-fetched these days. Those who have tried to stand in the way of rising physical premiums have been steam-rollered - witness the short-covering frenzy that sent U.S. Midwest premiums into supernova at the start of this year.


    The U.S. Midwest premium, as assessed by Platts, a leading global energy, metals and petrochemicals information provider, surged to an all-time high of 20.75 cents per lb ($457.45 per tonne) in early January. The pull-back made it only as far as 18.25 cents in early April and now the premium's rising again, hitting 19 cents at the end of May.


    The same is happening in Europe and the unstoppable premium machine has just struck Japan.


    So just how high might premiums go? To answer that question would mean disentangling the various interconnected drivers.


    That is itself a major problem since there is no clear-cut consensus as to which of them holds the key to unlocking the premium riddle, a dilemma that was laid bare in the aluminium industry's fractured response to the LME's consultation on its warehousing policy.


    Is it the load-out queues at LME locations such as Detroit and Vlissingen? Is it the in-vogue stocks-financing trade that has tied up so much surplus metal and kept it away from manufacturing users? Or is it the multiplying smelter closures that are pushing the market into deficit?


    All are somehow in the mix and right now there's still no easy way of saying which is the most important.



    ALL ABOUT QUEUES?


    Take those infamous load-out queues, for example.


    The LME's proposed solution to its queue problem has already altered warehouse company behaviour even though its load-in-load-out formula is stuck in legal limbo thanks to the courtroom fisticuffs between the exchange and Rusal.


    The revolving door strategy employed by Metro in Detroit, whereby rental from the load-out queue financed incentives to attract more metal into its sheds, has been stopped. Not one tonne of aluminium has been warranted in Motown in the last two months.


    The load-out queue, however, has still been growing because metal is still being cancelled and joining the queue, 180,000 tonnes of it over the course of April and May.


    As of the end of April, the aluminium queue at Detroit stood at 683 days. The cost of getting metal out, a combination of the daily rental and the load-out charge, was $388 per tonne, within a whisker of Platts' then Midwest premium assessment of $406.


    Until the queue actually starts shortening, the apparent linkage between the two remains intact. On current trends, the day is fast approaching since there are now only 158,525 tonnes of non-cancelled aluminium in the city.


    But then there is Vlissingen, the Dutch port dominated by Pacorini, the warehousing arm of Glencore. Although inflows have slowed, they have by no means stopped and it looks like movement is being carefully calibrated to minimise queue decay in the event the LME's new policy makes it through the courts.


    The aluminium queue here was 748 days at the end of April and the notional "value" was $406 per tonne. For those, and they are many, who argue that physical premiums are all about queues, there's nothing here to prove them wrong yet, although things will get a lot more interesting when the Detroit queue starts contracting.



    FUNDS AND FUNDAMENTALS


    But it should be clear by now that queues are not the only driver of premiums. After all, if less metal is flowing into the LME warehouse system and more leaving, why hasn't there been an impact on physical market availability and therefore premiums?


    The answer comes in two parts.


    Firstly, hardly any of that metal leaving Detroit and Vlissingen every day is going anywhere near an actual manufacturer. Rather, it is still mainly, and quite possibly totally, going to cheaper off-market storage to earn a tidy profit for stocks financiers.


    The trade remains in robust good health. True, there has been a sharp contraction in the front part of the LME forward curve over the last couple of days, the benchmark cash-to-three-month period CMAL0-3 closing Wednesday valued at $22.25 contango, compared with over $40 a week ago. But we've seen these spread spasms come and go over recent years with little impact on the bigger financing picture.


    And although the prospect of higher interest rates is looming larger in the United States and the UK, the European Central Bank has just moved in the opposite direction with a further loosening of monetary policy. As long as money remains cheap and interest rates low, one of the pillars of stocks-financing profitability remains firmly in place.


    Then, of course, there is the fact that there is less metal around to plug the supply gap left by the financiers. As more and more smelter capacity is mothballed, this fundamental driver of higher premiums is assuming ever greater significance.


    North American production was running at an annualised rate of 4.6 million tonnes in April, according to the latest figures from the International Aluminium Institute. That's the lowest level since August 2010.


    Smelter capacity has been permanently lost in both western and eastern Europe over the last couple of years with many plants in the former still struggling to survive.


    No-one sniggers any more when producers talk about a deficit market. What was once viewed as wishful thinking is rapidly becoming consensus.



    HIGHER AND HIGHER?


    To some extent it doesn't matter which of these drivers you think is the more important, since all three are still individually pushing premiums in the same direction.



    For now at least.


    At some stage it does look as if that Detroit queue is going to start contracting. And spread tightness could yet free up some of the aluminium locked up in financing deals, although the ironic net result may be to attract more metal into the LME system, where it can be snapped up again and placed back in load-out queues.


    With so many moving parts, the aluminium premium machine may yet come unhinged but not in time to bail out Japanese buyers for their next quarter shipments.


    And as for Rusal's claim that premiums could go higher still to $500 or "even $600" over the next few months? It still seems improbable. But it's by no means impossible. (Editing by David Evans)

    http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/06/05/home-aluminium-idUSL6N0OM1XN20140605?rpc=401&feedType=RSS&feedName=rbssFinancialServicesAndRealEstateNews&rpc=401

    Posted by shonini

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    Aluminum-Sheet Use in Autos Seen Climbing Five-Fold

    Global aluminum-sheet use in auto bodies will climb five-fold by 2020 as car manufacturers seek lightweight material to improve fuel economy, said Derek Prichett, a vice president of global recycling at Novelis Inc.


    Sheet consumption will jump to 1.8 million metric tons from 350,000 tons currently, Prichett said in an interview in Chicago yesterday. Atlanta-based Novelis counts Ford Motor Co., Volkswagen AG’s Audi unit and the Jaguar Land Rover division of Tata Motors Ltd. as customers, according to its website.


    A push in the U.S. and Europe to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and increase mileage is prompting carmakers to seek to replace heavier materials such as steel. Ford begins production of an all-aluminum bodied F-150 pickup truck this year, and other car and truck manufacturers will follow suit, switching to aluminum over the next six years, Jack Clark, a senior vice president at Novelis, said in the same interview.


    Aluminum content in light vehicles around the world, including bodies, hoods and doors, will rise to near 35 billion pounds by 2025, making the auto industry a “major” market for aluminum, Clark said.


    Demand for the metal in North America will exceed production by 1.255 million metric tons in 2015, up from an estimated 1.13 million tons this year, partly because of increased shipments to the region’s auto industry, Jorge Vazquez, the managing director at researcher Harbor Aluminum Intelligence Unit LLC, said at a conference in Chicago yesterday.

    Tighter Supply

    The metal has risen 5.6 percent this year on the London Metal Exchange as supply tightens amid rising consumption and production cuts. The contract for delivery in three months fell 0.5 percent to $1,900.50 a ton on the LME yesterday.

    Prices may near $2,000 a ton by mid-2015 after the market tips into a deficit in the second half of 2014, BNP Paribas SA said in a report May 8.

    The trend in North America may spread to Japan, helping revive consumption of the metal in the transport sector, Takuki Murayama, the executive director of the Japan Aluminium Association, said in an interview in Chicago June 9.

    To contact the reporter on this story: Luzi Ann Javier in New York at ljavier@bloomberg.net

    To contact the editors responsible for this story: Millie Munshi at mmunshi@bloomberg.net Joe Richter

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-06-11/aluminum-sheet-use-in-autos-seen-climbing-five-fold.html?

    Posted by shonini

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    Heinrich's Law

    My Interests/MGMT / 2014. 6. 15. 16:35




    The Heinrich Law 
     
    Statistics can tell us if our accident and incident reporting is working 
     
    Herbert William Heinrich (born 1886) was an American industrial safety pioneer from the 1930s. He was an Assistant Superintendent of the Engineering and Inspection Division of Travelers Insurance Company when he published his book Industrial Accident Prevention, A Scientific Approach in 1931.

    One empirical finding from his 1931 book became known as Heinrich's Law: that in a workplace, for every accident that causes a major injury, there are 29 accidents that cause minor injuries and 300 accidents that cause no injuries. Because many accidents share common root causes, addressing more commonplace accidents that cause no injuries can prevent accidents that cause injuries.
     

    This ratio can be shown graphically as a pyramid

    Heinrich Law 
    No Injury
    Other writers have added the fourth dimension - hazards identified before they have caused an incident.

    The Bird Study
     
    In 1969, a study of industrial accidents was undertaken by Frank E. Bird, Jr., who was then the Director of Engineering Services for the Insurance Company of North America.

    Bird analysed 1,753,498 accidents reported by 297 cooperating companies. These companies represented 21 different industrial groups, employing 1,750,000 employees who worked over 3 billion hours during the exposure period analyzed. The study revealed the following ratios in the accidents reported: For every 1 reported major injury (resulting in fatality, disability, lost time or medical treatment), there were 9.8 reported minor injuries (requiring only first aid). For the 95 companies that further analyzed major injuries in their reporting, the ratio was one lost time injury per 15 medical treatment injuries.

    It is critical that accident investigation be entered into knowing that we can make a difference if we can find the true causes of the accident. This means dropping any assumptions that there is nothing that can be done - "it is an accident".
    If we review the company statistics and find that for ever major injury we have multiple minor injuries, which is to be expected, but for ever minor injury, we are reporting fewer 'no-injury' events, we can deduce that our reporting system is not working. 
    Ineffective reporting 
    Having dropped that assumption of "an accident", we should realise that we should investigate all accidents and "near miss" incidents as well as reported hazards. 



    http://www.myblogsite.com.au/The-Heinrich-Law.html

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    Record offers for Q3 MJP premiums as talks continue

    May 30, 2014 - 10:18 GMTLocation: Singapore

    KEYWORDS: MJP , main Japanese premium , aluminium , deals , benchmark ,Rusal , Rio Tinto , Alcoa , BHP

    The Japanese aluminium buyers are staring at record-high premiums of over $400 per tonne for third quarter delivery, with offers from major producers already above that level.

    Three of the big four producers are offering premiums in the range of $405-410 per tonne, market participants have said. "We received $410 from Rio Tinto; from Alcoa the number is $408 and Rusal is offering $405. We have not received BHP's offer yet," a source at a large trading house in Japan said.  Second quarter Main Japan Port (MJP) premiums had settled at record-high levels of $365-369 per tonne.  Rio Tinto, which sent its offer letter on Tuesday May 27, attributed the increase to a tight market amid smelter shutdowns and high premiums in Europe...


    http://www.metalbulletin.com/Article/3346913/Record-offers-for-Q3-MJP-premiums-as-talks-continue.html


    Posted by shonini

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    Don't Make These 9 Deadly Leadership Mistakes
     


    You want to do the right things, but a big part of your success also hinges on avoiding the wrong things. To be a great boss, avoid these 9 common traps.

    Being a leader isn't easy, and not every decision you make is going to be a good one. But you can be a more effective leader if you avoid the most common mistakes that bosses make. The good news is that, with just a little bit of work and attention, these mistakes can be avoided and your company can thrive as a result. So avoid these 9 deadly leadership mistakes at all cost.

    1. Failing to delegate

    The key to leadership success is to learn to effectively delegate both the responsibility for completing assignments and the authority required to get things done. Whenever you prepare to take on a new task or assignment, make a point to ask yourself whether one of your employees can do it instead.

    2. Not setting goals

    Not only do goals give employees direction and purpose, but they ensure that your employees are working towards the overall goals of the organization. Setting goals with employees is a key job of any leader. Ultimately, the goals that you and your employees agree to should support the goals of your organization.

    3. Looking for quick fixes

    No matter how difficult the problem, there is always a quick solution. The trouble is that in our zeal to fix things quickly and move on to the next fire to be fought, we often overlook the lasting solution that may take longer to develop. You want to make a decision and move on, but don't be too hasty.

    4. Communicating poorly--or not at all

    It can be difficult for busy bosses to keep employees up to date on the latest developments. And with the speed that information now travels, employees may learn what's going on in the organization before the boss does.  Regardless, make every effort to get employees the information they need to do their jobs quickly and efficiently.

    5. Failing to learn

    Every employee, no matter how talented or meticulous, makes mistakes.  What separates good employees from not-so-good employees is their ability to learn from those mistakes.  The best leaders create an environment in which employees aren't afraid to take prudent risks, even if it means occasional failure, because that's how employees learn.

    6. Resisting change

    If you think you can keep things from changing in your business, you are mistaken. Instead of resisting change, or reacting to it after the fact, anticipate the changes that are coming and make plans to address them before they arrive.

    7. Not making time for employees

    Above all, leadership is a people job. When an employee needs to talk with you--whatever the reason--put your work aside, turn off the phone, and focus on that employee. If you're not available at that moment, make an appointment to meet with the employee as soon as possible.

    8. Missing chances to make work fun

    Without a doubt, being a boss is serious business. Despite the gravity of these responsibilities, the best leaders make their organizations fun places to be. Your people spend about one-third of their lives at work.  Make it a pleasant place for them.

    9. Failing to praise and reward

    There are many things that leaders can do to recognize employees that cost little or no money, are easy to implement, and take only a few minutes to accomplish.  When you take the time to recognize employees’ achievements, the result is improved morale, performance, and loyalty.

    Like this post? If so, sign up here and always stay up to date with Peter’s latest thoughts and goings-on.


    http://www.inc.com/peter-economy/dont-make-these-9-deadly-leadership-mistakes.html?cid=readmore


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